Lemma 84.33.2. Let $S$ be a scheme. Let $X$ be an algebraic space over $S$. Let $U$ be a simplicial algebraic space over $S$. Let $a : U \to X$ be an augmentation. If $a : U \to X$ is an fppf hypercovering of $X$, then

\[ a^{-1} : \mathop{\mathit{Sh}}\nolimits (X_{\acute{e}tale}) \to \mathop{\mathit{Sh}}\nolimits (U_{\acute{e}tale}) \quad \text{and}\quad a^{-1} : \textit{Ab}(X_{\acute{e}tale}) \to \textit{Ab}(U_{\acute{e}tale}) \]

are fully faithful with essential image the cartesian sheaves and quasi-inverse given by $a_*$. Here $a : \mathop{\mathit{Sh}}\nolimits (U_{\acute{e}tale}) \to \mathop{\mathit{Sh}}\nolimits (X_{\acute{e}tale})$ is as in Section 84.32.

**Proof.**
We will prove the statement for sheaves of sets. It will be an almost formal consequence of results already established. Consider the diagram of Lemma 84.33.1. In the proof of this lemma we have seen that $h_{-1}$ is the morphism $a_ X$ of More on Cohomology of Spaces, Section 83.6. Thus it follows from More on Cohomology of Spaces, Lemma 83.6.1 that $(h_{-1})^{-1}$ is fully faithful with quasi-inverse $h_{-1, *}$. The same holds true for the components $h_ n$ of $h$. By the description of the functors $h^{-1}$ and $h_*$ of Lemma 84.5.2 we conclude that $h^{-1}$ is fully faithful with quasi-inverse $h_*$. Observe that $U$ is a hypercovering of $X$ in $(\textit{Spaces}/S)_{fppf}$ as defined in Section 84.21. By Lemma 84.21.1 we see that $a_{fppf}^{-1}$ is fully faithful with quasi-inverse $a_{fppf, *}$ and with essential image the cartesian sheaves on $(\textit{Spaces}/U)_{fppf, total}$. A formal argument (chasing around the diagram) now shows that $a^{-1}$ is fully faithful.

Finally, suppose that $\mathcal{G}$ is a cartesian sheaf on $U_{\acute{e}tale}$. Then $h^{-1}\mathcal{G}$ is a cartesian sheaf on $(\textit{Spaces}/U)_{fppf, total}$. Hence $h^{-1}\mathcal{G} = a_{fppf}^{-1}\mathcal{H}$ for some sheaf $\mathcal{H}$ on $(\textit{Spaces}/X)_{fppf}$. In particular we find that $h_0^{-1}\mathcal{G}_0 = (a_{0, big, fppf})^{-1}\mathcal{H}$. Recalling that $h_0 = a_{U_0}$ and that $U_0 \to X$ is flat, locally of finite presentation, and surjective, we find from More on Cohomology of Spaces, Lemma 83.6.7 that there exists a sheaf $\mathcal{F}$ on $X_{\acute{e}tale}$ and isomorphism $\mathcal{H} = (h_{-1})^{-1}\mathcal{F}$. Since $a_{fppf}^{-1}\mathcal{H} = h^{-1}\mathcal{G}$ we deduce that $h^{-1}\mathcal{G} \cong h^{-1}a^{-1}\mathcal{F}$. By fully faithfulness of $h^{-1}$ we conclude that $a^{-1}\mathcal{F} \cong \mathcal{G}$.

Fix an isomorphism $\theta : a^{-1}\mathcal{F} \to \mathcal{G}$. To finish the proof we have to show $\mathcal{G} = a^{-1}a_*\mathcal{G}$ (in order to show that the quasi-inverse is given by $a_*$; everything else has been proven above). Because $a^{-1}$ is fully faithful we have $\text{id} \cong a_*a^{-1}$ by Categories, Lemma 4.24.4. Thus $\mathcal{F} \cong a_*a^{-1}\mathcal{F}$ and $a_*\theta : a_*a^{-1}\mathcal{F} \to a_*\mathcal{G}$ combine to an isomorphism $\mathcal{F} \to a_*\mathcal{G}$. Pulling back by $a$ and precomposing by $\theta ^{-1}$ we find the desired isomorphism.
$\square$

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