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Example 4.32.4. The constructions of $2$-fibre products of categories over categories given in Lemma 4.32.3 and of categories in Lemma 4.31.4 (as in Example 4.31.3) produce non-equivalent outputs in general. Namely, let $\mathcal{S}$ be the groupoid category with one object and two arrows, and let $\mathcal{X}$ be the discrete category with one object. Taking the $2$-fibre product $\mathcal{X} \times _\mathcal {S} \mathcal{X}$ as categories yields the discrete category with two objects. However, if we view all of these as categories over $\mathcal{S}$, the $2$-fiber product $\mathcal{X} \times _\mathcal {S} \mathcal{X}$ as categories over $\mathcal{S}$ is the discrete category with one object. The difference is that (in the notation of Lemma 4.32.3), we were allowed to choose any comparison isomorphism $f$ in the first situation, but could only choose the identity arrow in the second situation.

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