## 98.15 Axioms for functors

Let $S$ be a scheme. Let $F : (\mathit{Sch}/S)_{fppf}^{opp} \to \textit{Sets}$ be a functor. Denote $\mathcal{X} = \mathcal{S}_ F$ the category fibred in sets associated to $F$, see Algebraic Stacks, Section 94.7. In this section we provide a translation between the material above as it applies to $\mathcal{X}$, to statements about $F$.

Let $S$ be a locally Noetherian scheme. Let $F : (\mathit{Sch}/S)_{fppf}^{opp} \to \textit{Sets}$ be a functor. Let $k$ be a field of finite type over $S$. Let $x_0 \in F(\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(k))$. The associated predeformation category (98.3.0.2) corresponds to the functor

Recall that we do not distinguish between categories cofibred in sets over $\mathcal{C}_\Lambda $ and functor $\mathcal{C}_\Lambda \to \textit{Sets}$, see Formal Deformation Theory, Remarks 90.5.2 (11). Given a transformation of functors $a : F \to G$, setting $y_0 = a(x_0)$ we obtain a morphism

see (98.3.1.1). Lemma 98.3.2 tells us that if $a : F \to G$ is formally smooth (in the sense of More on Morphisms of Spaces, Definition 76.13.1), then $F_{k, x_0} \longrightarrow G_{k, y_0}$ is smooth as in Formal Deformation Theory, Remark 90.8.4.

Lemma 98.4.1 says that if $Y' = Y \amalg _ X X'$ in the category of schemes over $S$ where $X \to X'$ is a thickening and $X \to Y$ is affine, then the map

is a bijection, provided that $F$ is an algebraic space. We say a general functor $F$ satisfies the *Rim-Schlessinger condition* or we say $F$ *satisfies (RS)* if given any pushout $Y' = Y \amalg _ X X'$ where $Y, X, X'$ are spectra of Artinian local rings of finite type over $S$, then

is a bijection. Thus every algebraic space satisfies (RS).

Lemma 98.6.1 says that given a functor $F$ which satisfies (RS), then all $F_{k, x_0}$ are deformation functors as in Formal Deformation Theory, Definition 90.16.8, i.e., they satisfy (RS) as in Formal Deformation Theory, Remark 90.16.5. In particular the tangent space

has the structure of a $k$-vector space by Formal Deformation Theory, Lemma 90.12.2.

Lemma 98.8.1 says that an algebraic space $F$ locally of finite type over $S$ gives rise to deformation functors $F_{k, x_0}$ with finite dimensional tangent spaces $TF_{k, x_0}$.

A *formal object*^{1} $\xi = (R, \xi _ n)$ of $F$ consists of a Noetherian complete local $S$-algebra $R$ whose residue field is of finite type over $S$, together with elements $\xi _ n \in F(\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(R/\mathfrak m^ n))$ such that $\xi _{n + 1}|_{\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(R/\mathfrak m^ n)} = \xi _ n$. A formal object $\xi $ defines a formal object $\xi $ of $F_{R/\mathfrak m, \xi _1}$. We say $\xi $ is *versal* if and only if it is versal in the sense of Formal Deformation Theory, Definition 90.8.9. A formal object $\xi = (R, \xi _ n)$ is called *effective* if there exists an $x \in F(\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(R))$ such that $\xi _ n = x|_{\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(R/\mathfrak m^ n)}$ for all $n \geq 1$. Lemma 98.9.5 says that if $F$ is an algebraic space, then every formal object is effective.

Let $U$ be a scheme locally of finite type over $S$ and let $x \in F(U)$. Let $u_0 \in U$ be a finite type point. We say that $x$ is versal at $u_0$ if and only if $\xi = (\mathcal{O}_{U, u_0}^\wedge , x|_{\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(\mathcal{O}_{U, u_0}/\mathfrak m_{u_0}^ n)})$ is a versal formal object in the sense described above.

Let $S$ be a locally Noetherian scheme. Let $F : (\mathit{Sch}/S)_{fppf}^{opp} \to \mathit{Sch}$ be a functor. Here are the axioms we will consider on $F$.

a set theoretic condition

^{2}to be ignored by readers who are not interested in set theoretical issues,$F$ is a sheaf for the étale topology,

$F$ is limit preserving,

$F$ satisfies the Rim-Schlessinger condition (RS),

every tangent space $TF_{k, x_0}$ is finite dimensional,

every formal object is effective,

$F$ satisfies openness of versality.

Here *limit preserving* is the notion defined in Limits of Spaces, Definition 70.3.1 and *openness of versality* means the following: Given a scheme $U$ locally of finite type over $S$, given $x \in F(U)$, and given a finite type point $u_0 \in U$ such that $x$ is versal at $u_0$, then there exists an open neighbourhood $u_0 \in U' \subset U$ such that $x$ is versal at every finite type point of $U'$.

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