**Proof.**
For a perfect object $E$ of $D(\mathcal{O}_ X)$ we have

\begin{align*} Rf_*(E \otimes _{\mathcal{O}_ X}^\mathbf {L} \omega _{X/Y}^\bullet ) & = Rf_*R\mathop{\mathcal{H}\! \mathit{om}}\nolimits _{\mathcal{O}_ X}(E^\vee , \omega _{X/Y}^\bullet ) \\ & = R\mathop{\mathcal{H}\! \mathit{om}}\nolimits _{\mathcal{O}_ Y}(Rf_*E^\vee , \mathcal{O}_ Y) \\ & = (Rf_*E^\vee )^\vee \end{align*}

For the first equality, see Cohomology on Sites, Lemma 21.46.4. For the second equality, see Lemma 84.3.3, Remark 84.3.5, and Derived Categories of Spaces, Lemma 73.25.4. The third equality is the definition of the dual. In particular these references also show that the outcome is a perfect object of $D(\mathcal{O}_ Y)$. We conclude that $\omega _{X/Y}^\bullet $ is $Y$-perfect by More on Morphisms of Spaces, Lemma 74.52.14. This proves (1).

Let $M$ be an object of $D_\mathit{QCoh}(\mathcal{O}_ Y)$. Then

\begin{align*} \mathop{\mathrm{Hom}}\nolimits _ Y(M, Rf_*a(\mathcal{O}_ Y)) & = \mathop{\mathrm{Hom}}\nolimits _ X(Lf^*M, a(\mathcal{O}_ Y)) \\ & = \mathop{\mathrm{Hom}}\nolimits _ Y(Rf_*Lf^*M, \mathcal{O}_ Y) \\ & = \mathop{\mathrm{Hom}}\nolimits _ Y(M \otimes _{\mathcal{O}_ Y}^\mathbf {L} Rf_*\mathcal{O}_ Y, \mathcal{O}_ Y) \end{align*}

The first equality holds by Cohomology on Sites, Lemma 21.19.1. The second equality by construction of $a$. The third equality by Derived Categories of Spaces, Lemma 73.20.1. Recall $Rf_*\mathcal{O}_ X$ is perfect of tor amplitude in $[0, N]$ for some $N$, see Derived Categories of Spaces, Lemma 73.25.4. Thus we can represent $Rf_*\mathcal{O}_ X$ by a complex of finite projective modules sitting in degrees $[0, N]$ (using More on Algebra, Lemma 15.73.2 and the fact that $Y$ is affine). Hence if $M = \mathcal{O}_ Y[-i]$ for some $i > 0$, then the last group is zero. Since $Y$ is affine we conclude that $H^ i(Rf_*a(\mathcal{O}_ Y)) = 0$ for $i > 0$. This proves (2).

Let $E$ be a perfect object of $D_\mathit{QCoh}(\mathcal{O}_ X)$. Then we have

\begin{align*} \mathop{\mathrm{Hom}}\nolimits _ X(E, R\mathop{\mathcal{H}\! \mathit{om}}\nolimits _{\mathcal{O}_ X}(a(\mathcal{O}_ Y), a(\mathcal{O}_ Y)) & = \mathop{\mathrm{Hom}}\nolimits _ X(E \otimes _{\mathcal{O}_ X}^\mathbf {L} a(\mathcal{O}_ Y), a(\mathcal{O}_ Y)) \\ & = \mathop{\mathrm{Hom}}\nolimits _ Y(Rf_*(E \otimes _{\mathcal{O}_ X}^\mathbf {L} a(\mathcal{O}_ Y)), \mathcal{O}_ Y) \\ & = \mathop{\mathrm{Hom}}\nolimits _ Y(Rf_*(R\mathop{\mathcal{H}\! \mathit{om}}\nolimits _{\mathcal{O}_ X}(E^\vee , a(\mathcal{O}_ Y))), \mathcal{O}_ Y) \\ & = \mathop{\mathrm{Hom}}\nolimits _ Y(R\mathop{\mathcal{H}\! \mathit{om}}\nolimits _{\mathcal{O}_ Y}(Rf_*E^\vee , \mathcal{O}_ Y), \mathcal{O}_ Y) \\ & = R\Gamma (Y, Rf_*E^\vee ) \\ & = \mathop{\mathrm{Hom}}\nolimits _ X(E, \mathcal{O}_ X) \end{align*}

The first equality holds by Cohomology on Sites, Lemma 21.34.2. The second equality is the definition of $a$. The third equality comes from the construction of the dual perfect complex $E^\vee $, see Cohomology on Sites, Lemma 21.46.4. The fourth equality follows from the equality $Rf_*R\mathop{\mathcal{H}\! \mathit{om}}\nolimits _{\mathcal{O}_ X}(E^\vee , \omega _{X/Y}^\bullet ) = R\mathop{\mathcal{H}\! \mathit{om}}\nolimits _{\mathcal{O}_ Y}(Rf_*E^\vee , \mathcal{O}_ Y)$ shown in the first paragraph of the proof. The fifth equality holds by double duality for perfect complexes (Cohomology on Sites, Lemma 21.46.4) and the fact that $Rf_*E$ is perfect by Derived Categories of Spaces, Lemma 73.25.4 The last equality is Leray for $f$. This string of equalities essentially shows (3) holds by the Yoneda lemma. Namely, the object $R\mathop{\mathcal{H}\! \mathit{om}}\nolimits (a(\mathcal{O}_ Y), a(\mathcal{O}_ Y))$ is in $D_\mathit{QCoh}(\mathcal{O}_ X)$ by Derived Categories of Spaces, Lemma 73.13.10. Taking $E = \mathcal{O}_ X$ in the above we get a map $\alpha : \mathcal{O}_ X \to R\mathop{\mathcal{H}\! \mathit{om}}\nolimits _{\mathcal{O}_ X}(a(\mathcal{O}_ Y), a(\mathcal{O}_ Y))$ corresponding to $\text{id}_{\mathcal{O}_ X} \in \mathop{\mathrm{Hom}}\nolimits _ X(\mathcal{O}_ X, \mathcal{O}_ X)$. Since all the isomorphisms above are functorial in $E$ we see that the cone on $\alpha $ is an object $C$ of $D_\mathit{QCoh}(\mathcal{O}_ X)$ such that $\mathop{\mathrm{Hom}}\nolimits (E, C) = 0$ for all perfect $E$. Since the perfect objects generate (Derived Categories of Spaces, Theorem 73.15.4) we conclude that $\alpha $ is an isomorphism.
$\square$

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