Lemma 85.10.1. Let $S$ be a scheme. Let $X$ be an affine scheme over $S$. Let $T \subset |X|$ be a closed subset. Then the functor

is a McQuillan affine formal algebraic space.

Our notion of a formal algebraic space is well adapted to taking the completion along a closed subset.

Lemma 85.10.1. Let $S$ be a scheme. Let $X$ be an affine scheme over $S$. Let $T \subset |X|$ be a closed subset. Then the functor

\[ (\mathit{Sch}/S)_{fppf} \longrightarrow \textit{Sets},\quad U \longmapsto \{ f : U \to X \mid f(|U|) \subset T\} \]

is a McQuillan affine formal algebraic space.

**Proof.**
Say $X = \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(A)$ and $T$ corresponds to the radical ideal $I \subset A$. Let $U = \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(B)$ be an affine scheme over $S$ and let $f : U \to X$ be an element of $F(U)$. Then $f$ corresponds to a ring map $\varphi : A \to B$ such that every prime of $B$ contains $\varphi (I) B$. Thus every element of $\varphi (I)$ is nilpotent in $B$, see Algebra, Lemma 10.17.2. Setting $J = \mathop{\mathrm{Ker}}(\varphi )$ we conclude that $I/J$ is a locally nilpotent ideal in $A/J$. Equivalently, $V(J) = V(I) = T$. In other words, the functor of the lemma equals $\mathop{\mathrm{colim}}\nolimits \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(A/J)$ where the colimit is over the collection of ideals $J$ with $V(J) = T$. Thus our functor is an affine formal algebraic space. It is McQuillan (Definition 85.5.7) because the maps $A \to A/J$ are surjective and hence $A^\wedge = \mathop{\mathrm{lim}}\nolimits A/J \to A/J$ is surjective, see Lemma 85.5.6.
$\square$

Lemma 85.10.2. Let $S$ be a scheme. Let $X$ be an algebraic space over $S$. Let $T \subset |X|$ be a closed subset. Then the functor

\[ (\mathit{Sch}/S)_{fppf} \longrightarrow \textit{Sets},\quad U \longmapsto \{ f : U \to X \mid f(|U|) \subset T\} \]

is a formal algebraic space.

**Proof.**
Denote $F$ the functor. Let $\{ U_ i \to U\} $ be an fppf covering. Then $\coprod |U_ i| \to |U|$ is surjective. Since $X$ is an fppf sheaf, it follows that $F$ is an fppf sheaf.

Let $\{ g_ i : X_ i \to X\} $ be an étale covering such that $X_ i$ is affine for all $i$, see Properties of Spaces, Lemma 64.6.1. The morphisms $F \times _ X X_ i \to F$ are étale (see Spaces, Lemma 63.5.5) and the map $\coprod F \times _ X X_ i \to F$ is a surjection of sheaves. Thus it suffices to prove that $F \times _ X X_ i$ is an affine formal algebraic space. A $U$-valued point of $F \times _ X X_ i$ is a morphism $U \to X_ i$ whose image is contained in the closed subset $g_ i^{-1}(T) \subset |X_ i|$. Thus this follows from Lemma 85.10.1. $\square$

Definition 85.10.3. Let $S$ be a scheme. Let $X$ be an algebraic space over $S$. Let $T \subset |X|$ be a closed subset. The formal algebraic space of Lemma 85.10.2 is called the *completion of $X$ along $T$*.

In [Chapter I, Section 10.8, EGA] the notation $X_{/T}$ is used to denote the completion and we will occasionally use this notation as well. Let $f : X \to X'$ be a morphism of algebraic spaces over a scheme $S$. Suppose that $T \subset |X|$ and $T' \subset |X'|$ are closed subsets such that $|f|(T) \subset T'$. Then it is clear that $f$ defines a morphism of formal algebraic spaces

\[ X_{/T} \longrightarrow X'_{/T'} \]

between the completions.

Lemma 85.10.4. Let $S$ be a scheme. Let $f : X' \to X$ be a morphism of algebraic spaces over $S$. Let $T \subset |X|$ be a closed subset and let $T' = |f|^{-1}(T) \subset |X'|$. Then

\[ \xymatrix{ X'_{/T'} \ar[r] \ar[d] & X' \ar[d]^ f \\ X_{/T} \ar[r] & X } \]

is a cartesian diagram of sheaves. In particular, the morphism $X'_{/T'} \to X_{/T}$ is representable by algebraic spaces.

**Proof.**
Namely, suppose that $Y \to X$ is a morphism from a scheme into $X$ such that $|Y|$ maps into $T$. Then $Y \times _ X X' \to X$ is a morphism of algebraic spaces such that $|Y \times _ X X'|$ maps into $T'$. Hence the functor $Y \times _{X_{/T}} X'_{/T'}$ is represented by $Y \times _ X X'$ and we see that the lemma holds.
$\square$

Lemma 85.10.5. Let $S$ be a scheme. Let $X$ be an algebraic space over $S$. Let $T \subset |X|$ be a closed subset. The reduction $(X_{/T})_{red}$ of the completion $X_{/T}$ of $X$ along $T$ is the reduced induced closed subspace $Z$ of $X$ corresponding to $T$.

**Proof.**
It follows from Lemma 85.8.1, Properties of Spaces, Definition 64.12.5 (which uses Properties of Spaces, Lemma 64.12.3 to construct $Z$), and the definition of $X_{/T}$ that $Z$ and $(X_{/T})_{red}$ are reduced algebraic spaces characterized the same mapping property: a morphism $g : Y \to X$ whose source is a reduced algebraic space factors through them if and only if $|Y|$ maps into $T \subset |X|$.
$\square$

Lemma 85.10.6. Let $S$ be a scheme. Let $X = \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(A)$ be an affine scheme over $S$. Let $T \subset X$ be a closed subset. Let $X_{/T}$ be the formal completion of $X$ along $T$.

If $X \setminus T$ is quasi-compact, i.e., $T$ is constructible, then $X_{/T}$ is adic*.

If $T = V(I)$ for some finitely generated ideal $I \subset A$, then $X_{/T} = \text{Spf}(A^\wedge )$ where $A^\wedge $ is the $I$-adic completion of $A$.

If $X$ is Noetherian, then $X_{/T}$ is Noetherian.

**Proof.**
By Algebra, Lemma 10.29.1 if (1) holds, then we can find an ideal $I \subset A$ as in (2). If (3) holds then we can find an ideal $I \subset A$ as in (2). Moreover, completions of Noetherian rings are Noetherian by Algebra, Lemma 10.97.6. All in all we see that it suffices to prove (2).

Proof of (2). Let $I = (f_1, \ldots , f_ r) \subset A$ cut out $T$. If $Z = \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(B)$ is an affine scheme and $g : Z \to X$ is a morphism with $g(Z) \subset T$ (set theoretically), then $g^\sharp (f_ i)$ is nilpotent in $B$ for each $i$. Thus $I^ n$ maps to zero in $B$ for some $n$. Hence we see that $X_{/T} = \mathop{\mathrm{colim}}\nolimits \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(A/I^ n) = \text{Spf}(A^\wedge )$. $\square$

The following lemma is due to Ofer Gabber.

Lemma 85.10.7. Let $S$ be a scheme. Let $X = \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(A)$ be an affine scheme over $S$. Let $T \subset X$ be a closed subscheme.

If the formal completion $X_{/T}$ is countably indexed and there exist countably many $f_1, f_2, f_3, \ldots \in A$ such that $T = V(f_1, f_2, f_3, \ldots )$, then $X_{/T}$ is adic*.

The conclusion of (1) is wrong if we omit the assumption that $T$ can be cut out by countably many functions in $X$.

**Proof.**
The assumption that $X_{/T}$ is countably indexed means that there exists a sequence of ideals

\[ A \supset J_1 \supset J_2 \supset J_3 \supset \ldots \]

with $V(J_ n) = T$ such that every ideal $J \subset A$ with $V(J) = T$ there exists an $n$ such that $J \supset J_ n$.

To construct an example for (2) let $\omega _1$ be the first uncountable ordinal. Let $k$ be a field and let $A$ be the $k$-algebra generated by $x_\alpha $, $\alpha \in \omega _1$ and $y_{\alpha \beta }$ with $\alpha \in \beta \in \omega _1$ subject to the relations $x_\alpha = y_{\alpha \beta } x_\beta $. Let $T = V(x_\alpha )$. Let $J_ n = (x_\alpha ^ n)$. If $J \subset A$ is an ideal such that $V(J) = T$, then $x_\alpha ^{n_\alpha } \in J$ for some $n_\alpha \geq 1$. One of the sets $\{ \alpha \mid n_\alpha = n\} $ must be unbounded in $\omega _1$. Then the relations imply that $J_ n \subset J$.

To see that (2) holds it now suffices to show that $A^\wedge = \mathop{\mathrm{lim}}\nolimits A/J_ n$ is not a ring complete with respect to a finitely generated ideal. For $\gamma \in \omega _1$ let $A_\gamma $ be the quotient of $A$ by the ideal generated by $x_\alpha $, $\alpha \in \gamma $ and $y_{\alpha \beta }$, $\alpha \in \gamma $. As $A/J_1$ is reduced, every topologically nilpotent element $f$ of $\mathop{\mathrm{lim}}\nolimits A/J_ n$ is in $J_1^\wedge = \mathop{\mathrm{lim}}\nolimits J_1/J_ n$. This means $f$ is an infinite series involving only a countable number of generators. Hence $f$ dies in $A_\gamma ^\wedge = \mathop{\mathrm{lim}}\nolimits A_\gamma /J_ nA_\gamma $ for some $\gamma $. Note that $A^\wedge \to A_\gamma ^\wedge $ is continuous and open by Lemma 85.4.5. If the topology on $A^\wedge $ was $I$-adic for some finitely generated ideal $I \subset A^\wedge $, then $I$ would go to zero in some $A_\gamma ^\wedge $. This would mean that $A_\gamma ^\wedge $ is discrete, which is not the case as there is a surjective continuous and open (by Lemma 85.4.5) map $A_\gamma ^\wedge \to k[[t]]$ given by $x_\alpha \mapsto t$, $y_{\alpha \beta } \mapsto 1$ for $\gamma = \alpha $ or $\gamma \in \alpha $.

Before we prove (1) we first prove the following: If $I \subset A^\wedge $ is a finitely generated ideal whose closure $\bar I$ is open, then $I = \bar I$. Since $V(J_ n^2) = T$ there exists an $m$ such that $J_ n^2 \supset J_ m$. Thus, we may assume that $J_ n^2 \supset J_{n + 1}$ for all $n$ by passing to a subsequence. Set $J_ n^\wedge = \mathop{\mathrm{lim}}\nolimits _{k \geq n} J_ n/J_ k \subset A^\wedge $. Since the closure $\bar I = \bigcap (I + J_ n^\wedge )$ (Lemma 85.4.2) is open we see that there exists an $m$ such that $I + J_ n^\wedge \supset J_ m^\wedge $ for all $n \geq m$. Fix such an $m$. We have

\[ J_{n - 1}^\wedge I + J_{n + 1}^\wedge \supset J_{n - 1}^\wedge (I + J_{n + 1}^\wedge ) \supset J_{n - 1}^\wedge J_ m^\wedge \]

for all $n \geq m + 1$. Namely, the first inclusion is trivial and the second was shown above. Because $J_{n - 1}J_ m \supset J_{n - 1}^2 \supset J_ n$ these inclusions show that the image of $J_ n$ in $A^\wedge $ is contained in the ideal $J_{n - 1}^\wedge I + J_{n + 1}^\wedge $. Because this ideal is open we conclude that

\[ J_{n - 1}^\wedge I + J_{n + 1}^\wedge \supset J_ n^\wedge . \]

Say $I = (g_1, \ldots , g_ t)$. Pick $f \in J_{m + 1}^\wedge $. Using the last displayed inclusion, valid for all $n \geq m + 1$, we can write by induction on $c \geq 0$

\[ f = \sum f_{i, c} g_ i \mod J_{m + 1+ c}^\wedge \]

with $f_{i, c} \in J_ m^\wedge $ and $f_{i, c} \equiv f_{i, c - 1} \bmod J_{m + c}^\wedge $. It follows that $IJ_ m^\wedge \supset J_{m + 1}^\wedge $. Combined with $I + J_{m + 1}^\wedge \supset J_ m^\wedge $ we conclude that $I$ is open.

Proof of (1). Assume $T = V(f_1, f_2, f_3, \ldots )$. Let $I_ m \subset A^\wedge $ be the ideal generated by $f_1, \ldots , f_ m$. We distinguish two cases.

Case I: For some $m$ the closure of $I_ m$ is open. Then $I_ m$ is open by the result of the previous paragraph. For any $n$ we have $(J_ n)^2 \supset J_{n+1}$ by design, so the closure of $(J_ n^\wedge )^2$ contains $J_{n+1}^\wedge $ and thus is open. Taking $n$ large, it follows that the closure of the product of any two open ideals in $A^\wedge $ is open. Let us prove $I_ m^ k$ is open for $k \ge 1$ by induction on $k$. The case $k = 1$ is our hypothesis on $m$ in Case I. For $k > 1$, suppose $I_ m^{k - 1}$ is open. Then $I_ m^ k = I_ m^{k - 1} \cdot I_ m$ is the product of two open ideals and hence has open closure. But then since $I_ m^ k$ is finitely generated it follows that $I_ m^ k$ is open by the previous paragraph (applied to $I = I_ m^ k$), so we can continue the induction on $k$. As each element of $I_ m$ is topologically nilpotent, we conclude that $I_ m$ is an ideal of definition which proves that $A^\wedge $ is adic with a finitely generated ideal of definition, i.e., $X_{/T}$ is adic*.

Case II. For all $m$ the closure $\bar I_ m$ of $I_ m$ is not open. Then the topology on $A^\wedge /\bar I_ m$ is not discrete. This means we can pick $\phi (m) \geq m$ such that

\[ \mathop{\mathrm{Im}}(J_{\phi (m)} \to A/(f_1, \ldots , f_ m)) \not= \mathop{\mathrm{Im}}(J_{\phi (m) + 1} \to A/(f_1, \ldots , f_ m)) \]

To see this we have used that $A^\wedge /(\bar I_ m + J_ n^\wedge ) = A/((f_1, \ldots , f_ m) + J_ n)$. Choose exponents $e_ i > 0$ such that $f_ i^{e_ i} \in J_{\phi (m) + 1}$ for $0 < m < i$. Let $J = (f_1^{e_1}, f_2^{e_2}, f_3^{e_3}, \ldots )$. Then $V(J) = T$. We claim that $J \not\supset J_ n$ for all $n$ which is a contradiction proving Case II does not occur. Namely, the image of $J$ in $A/(f_1, \ldots , f_ m)$ is contained in the image of $J_{\phi (m) + 1}$ which is properly contained in the image of $J_ m$. $\square$

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