## Tag `0ATT`

## 46.16. Compactifications

We interrupt the flow of the arguments for a little bit of geometry.

Let $S$ be a quasi-compact and quasi-separated scheme. We will say a scheme $X$ over $S$

has a compactification over $S$oris compactifyable over $S$if there exists an open immersion $X \to \overline{X}$ into a scheme $\overline{X}$ proper over $S$. If $X$ has a compactification over $S$, then $X \to S$ is separated and of finite type. It is a theorem of Nagata (see [Lutkebohmert], [Conrad-Nagata], [Nagata-1], [Nagata-2], [Nagata-3], and [Nagata-4]) that the converse is true as well (we will give a precise statement and a proof if we ever need this result).Let $S$ be a quasi-compact and quasi-separated scheme. Let $X$ be a scheme over $S$. The category of

compactifications of $X$ over $S$is the category whose objects are open immersions $j : X \to \overline{X}$ over $S$ with $\overline{X} \to S$ proper and whose morphisms $(j' : X' \to \overline{X}') \to (j : X \to \overline{X})$ are morphisms $f : \overline{X}' \to \overline{X}$ of schemes over $S$ such that $f \circ j' = j$.Lemma 46.16.1. Let $S$ be a quasi-compact and quasi-separated scheme. Let $X$ be a compactifyable scheme over $S$. The category of compactifications of $X$ over $S$ is cofiltered.

Proof.We have to check conditions (1), (2), (3) of Categories, Definition 4.20.1. Condition (1) holds exactly because we assumed that $X$ is compactifyable. Let $j_i : X \to \overline{X}_i$, $i = 1, 2$ be two compactifications. Then we can consider the scheme theoretic closure $\overline{X}$ of $(j_1, j_2) : X \to \overline{X}_1 \times_S \overline{X}_2$. This determines a third compactification $j : X \to \overline{X}$ which dominates both $j_i$: $$ \xymatrix{ (X, \overline{X}_1) & (X, \overline{X}) \ar[l] \ar[r] & (X, \overline{X}_2) } $$ Thus (2) holds. Let $f_1, f_2 : \overline{X}_1 \to \overline{X}_2$ be two morphisms between compactifications $j_i : X \to \overline{X}_i$, $i = 1, 2$. Let $\overline{X} \subset \overline{X}_1$ be the equalizer of $f_1$ and $f_2$. As $\overline{X}_2 \to S$ is separated, we see that $\overline{X}$ is a closed subscheme of $\overline{X}_1$ and hence proper over $S$. Moreover, we obtain an open immersion $X \to \overline{X}$ because $f_1|_X = f_2|_X = \text{id}_X$. The morphism $(X \to \overline{X}) \to (j_1 : X \to \overline{X}_1)$ given by the closed immersion $\overline{X} \to \overline{X}_1$ equalizes $f_1$ and $f_2$ which proves condition (3) and finishes the proof. $\square$We can also consider the category of all compactifications (for varying $X$). It turns out that this category, localized at the set of morphisms which induce an isomorphism on the interior is equivalent to the category of compactifyable schemes over $S$.

Lemma 46.16.2. Let $S$ be a quasi-compact and quasi-separated scheme. Let $f : X \to Y$ be a morphism of schemes over $S$ with $Y$ separated and of finite type over $S$ and $X$ compactifyable over $S$. Then $X$ has a compactification over $Y$.

Proof.Let $f : X \to Y$ be a morphism of schemes over $S$ with $Y$ separated and of finite type over $S$. Let $j : X \to \overline{X}$ be a compactification of $X$ over $S$. Then we let $\overline{X}'$ be the scheme theoretic image of $(j, f) : X \to \overline{X} \times_S Y$. The morphism $\overline{X}' \to Y$ is proper because $\overline{X} \times_S Y \to Y$ is proper as a base change of $\overline{X} \to S$. On the other hand, since $Y$ is separated over $S$, the morphism $(1, f) : X \to X \times_S Y$ is a closed immersion (Schemes, Lemma 25.21.11) and hence $X \to \overline{X}'$ is an open immersion. $\square$Let $S$ be a quasi-compact and quasi-separated scheme. We define the

category of compactificationsto be the category whose objects are pairs $(X, \overline{X})$ where $\overline{X}$ is a scheme proper over $S$ and $X \subset \overline{X}$ is a quasi-compact open and whose morphisms are commutative diagrams $$ \xymatrix{ X \ar[d] \ar[r]_f & Y \ar[d] \\ \overline{X} \ar[r]^{\overline{f}} & \overline{Y} } $$ of morphisms of schemes over $S$.Lemma 46.16.3. Let $S$ be a quasi-compact and quasi-separated scheme. The collection of morphisms $(u, \overline{u}) : (X', \overline{X}') \to (X, \overline{X})$ such that $u$ is an isomorphism forms a right multiplicative system (Categories, Definition 4.26.1) of arrows in the category of compactifications.

Proof.Axiom RMS1 is trivial to verify. Let us check RMS2 holds. Suppose given a diagram $$ \xymatrix{ & (X', \overline{X}') \ar[d]_{(u, \overline{u})} \\ (Y, \overline{Y}) \ar[r]^{(f, \overline{f})} & (X, \overline{X}) } $$ with $u : X' \to X$ an isomorphism. Then we let $Y' = Y \times_X X'$ with the projection map $v : Y' \to Y$ (an isomorphism). We also set $\overline{Y}' = \overline{Y} \times_{\overline{X}} \overline{X}'$ with the projection map $\overline{v} : \overline{Y}' \to \overline{Y}$ It is clear that $Y' \to \overline{Y}'$ is an open immersion. The diagram $$ \xymatrix{ (Y', \overline{Y}') \ar[r]_{(g, \overline{g})} \ar[d]_{(v, \overline{v})} & (X', \overline{X}') \ar[d]_{(u, \overline{u})} \\ (Y, \overline{Y}) \ar[r]^{(f, \overline{f})} & (X, \overline{X}) } $$ shows that axiom RMS2 holds.Let us check RMS3 holds. Suppose given a pair of morphisms $(f, \overline{f}), (g, \overline{g}) : (X, \overline{X}) \to (Y, \overline{Y})$ of compactifications and a morphism $(v, \overline{v}) : (Y, \overline{Y}) \to (Y', \overline{Y}')$ such that $v$ is an isomorphism and such that $(v, \overline{v}) \circ (f, \overline{f}) = (v, \overline{v}) \circ (g, \overline{g})$. Then $f = g$. Hence if we let $\overline{X}' \subset \overline{X}$ be the equalizer of $\overline{f}$ and $\overline{g}$, then $(u, \overline{u}) : (X, \overline{X}') \to (X, \overline{X})$ will be a morphism of the category of compactifications such that $(f, \overline{f}) \circ (u, \overline{u}) = (g, \overline{g}) \circ (u, \overline{u})$ as desired. $\square$

Lemma 46.16.4. Let $S$ be a quasi-compact and quasi-separated scheme. The functor $(X, \overline{X}) \mapsto X$ defines an equivalence from the category of compactifications localized (Categories, Lemma 4.26.11) at the right multiplicative system of Lemma 46.16.3 to the category of compactifyable schemes over $S$.

Proof.Denote $\mathcal{C}$ the category of compactifications and denote $Q : \mathcal{C} \to \mathcal{C}'$ the localization functor of Categories, Lemma 4.26.16. Denote $\mathcal{D}$ the category of compactifyable schemes over $S$. It is clear from the lemma just cited and our choice of multiplicative system that we obtain a functor $\mathcal{C}' \to \mathcal{D}$. This functor is clearly essentially surjective. If $f : X \to Y$ is a morphism of compactifyable schemes, then we choose an open immersion $Y \to \overline{Y}$ into a scheme proper over $S$, and then we choose an embedding $X \to \overline{X}$ into a scheme $\overline{X}$ proper over $\overline{Y}$ (possible by Lemma 46.16.2 applied to $X \to \overline{Y}$). This gives a morphism $(X, \overline{X}) \to (Y, \overline{Y})$ of compactifications which produces our given morphism $X \to Y$. Finally, suppose given a pair of morphisms in the localized category with the same source and target: say $$ a = ((f, \overline{f}) : (X', \overline{X}') \to (Y, \overline{Y}), (u, \overline{u}) : (X', \overline{X}') \to (X, \overline{X})) $$ and $$ b = ((g, \overline{g}) : (X'', \overline{X}'') \to (Y, \overline{Y}), (v, \overline{v}) : (X'', \overline{X}'') \to (X, \overline{X})) $$ which produce the same morphism $X \to Y$ over $S$, in other words $f \circ u^{-1} = g \circ v^{-1}$. By Categories, Lemma 4.26.13 we may assume that $(X', \overline{X}') = (X'', \overline{X}'')$ and $(u, \overline{u}) = (v, \overline{v})$. In this case we can consider the equalizer $\overline{X}''' \subset \overline{X}'$ of $\overline{f}$ and $\overline{g}$. The morphism $(w, \overline{w}) : (X', \overline{X}''') \to (X', \overline{X}')$ is in the multiplicative subset and we see that $a = b$ in the localized category by precomposing with $(w, \overline{w})$. $\square$

The code snippet corresponding to this tag is a part of the file `duality.tex` and is located in lines 3519–3734 (see updates for more information).

```
\section{Compactifications}
\label{section-compactify}
\noindent
We interrupt the flow of the arguments for a little bit of geometry.
\medskip\noindent
Let $S$ be a quasi-compact and quasi-separated scheme. We will say a
scheme $X$ over $S$ {\it has a compactification over $S$}
or {\it is compactifyable over $S$} if there exists
an open immersion $X \to \overline{X}$ into a scheme $\overline{X}$
proper over $S$. If $X$ has a compactification over $S$, then $X \to S$
is separated and of finite type. It is a theorem of Nagata (see
\cite{Lutkebohmert}, \cite{Conrad-Nagata}, \cite{Nagata-1},
\cite{Nagata-2}, \cite{Nagata-3}, and \cite{Nagata-4}) that the converse is
true as well (we will give a
precise statement and a proof if we ever need this result).
\medskip\noindent
Let $S$ be a quasi-compact and quasi-separated scheme.
Let $X$ be a scheme over $S$. The category
of {\it compactifications of $X$ over $S$} is the category whose
objects are open immersions $j : X \to \overline{X}$ over $S$ with
$\overline{X} \to S$ proper and whose morphisms
$(j' : X' \to \overline{X}') \to (j : X \to \overline{X})$
are morphisms $f : \overline{X}' \to \overline{X}$ of schemes over $S$
such that $f \circ j' = j$.
\begin{lemma}
\label{lemma-compactifications-cofiltered}
Let $S$ be a quasi-compact and quasi-separated scheme.
Let $X$ be a compactifyable scheme over $S$.
The category of compactifications of $X$ over $S$ is
cofiltered.
\end{lemma}
\begin{proof}
We have to check conditions (1), (2), (3) of
Categories, Definition \ref{categories-definition-codirected}.
Condition (1) holds exactly because we assumed that $X$
is compactifyable.
Let $j_i : X \to \overline{X}_i$, $i = 1, 2$ be two compactifications.
Then we can consider the scheme theoretic closure $\overline{X}$
of $(j_1, j_2) : X \to \overline{X}_1 \times_S \overline{X}_2$.
This determines a third compactification $j : X \to \overline{X}$
which dominates both $j_i$:
$$
\xymatrix{
(X, \overline{X}_1) & (X, \overline{X}) \ar[l] \ar[r] & (X, \overline{X}_2)
}
$$
Thus (2) holds. Let $f_1, f_2 : \overline{X}_1 \to \overline{X}_2$
be two morphisms between compactifications
$j_i : X \to \overline{X}_i$, $i = 1, 2$.
Let $\overline{X} \subset \overline{X}_1$ be the equalizer of
$f_1$ and $f_2$. As $\overline{X}_2 \to S$ is separated, we see
that $\overline{X}$ is a closed subscheme of $\overline{X}_1$
and hence proper over $S$. Moreover, we obtain an
open immersion $X \to \overline{X}$ because $f_1|_X = f_2|_X = \text{id}_X$.
The morphism $(X \to \overline{X}) \to (j_1 : X \to \overline{X}_1)$
given by the closed immersion $\overline{X} \to \overline{X}_1$
equalizes $f_1$ and $f_2$ which proves condition (3) and
finishes the proof.
\end{proof}
\noindent
We can also consider the category of all compactifications (for varying $X$).
It turns out that this category, localized at the set of morphisms
which induce an isomorphism on the interior
is equivalent to the category of compactifyable schemes over $S$.
\begin{lemma}
\label{lemma-compactifyable}
Let $S$ be a quasi-compact and quasi-separated scheme. Let $f : X \to Y$
be a morphism of schemes over $S$ with $Y$ separated and of finite type
over $S$ and $X$ compactifyable over $S$. Then $X$ has a compactification
over $Y$.
\end{lemma}
\begin{proof}
Let $f : X \to Y$ be a morphism of schemes over $S$ with $Y$ separated
and of finite type over $S$. Let $j : X \to \overline{X}$ be a
compactification of $X$ over $S$. Then we let $\overline{X}'$ be
the scheme theoretic image of $(j, f) : X \to \overline{X} \times_S Y$.
The morphism $\overline{X}' \to Y$ is proper because
$\overline{X} \times_S Y \to Y$ is proper as a base change of
$\overline{X} \to S$. On the other hand, since $Y$ is separated
over $S$, the morphism $(1, f) : X \to X \times_S Y$ is a closed
immersion (Schemes, Lemma \ref{schemes-lemma-semi-diagonal})
and hence $X \to \overline{X}'$ is an open immersion.
\end{proof}
\noindent
Let $S$ be a quasi-compact and quasi-separated scheme.
We define the {\it category of compactifications} to be the category
whose objects are pairs $(X, \overline{X})$ where $\overline{X}$
is a scheme proper over $S$ and $X \subset \overline{X}$ is a
quasi-compact open and whose morphisms
are commutative diagrams
$$
\xymatrix{
X \ar[d] \ar[r]_f & Y \ar[d] \\
\overline{X} \ar[r]^{\overline{f}} & \overline{Y}
}
$$
of morphisms of schemes over $S$.
\begin{lemma}
\label{lemma-right-multiplicative-system}
Let $S$ be a quasi-compact and quasi-separated scheme.
The collection of morphisms
$(u, \overline{u}) : (X', \overline{X}') \to (X, \overline{X})$
such that $u$ is an isomorphism forms a right multiplicative system
(Categories, Definition \ref{categories-definition-multiplicative-system})
of arrows in the category of compactifications.
\end{lemma}
\begin{proof}
Axiom RMS1 is trivial to verify. Let us check RMS2 holds.
Suppose given a diagram
$$
\xymatrix{
& (X', \overline{X}') \ar[d]_{(u, \overline{u})} \\
(Y, \overline{Y}) \ar[r]^{(f, \overline{f})} & (X, \overline{X})
}
$$
with $u : X' \to X$ an isomorphism. Then we let $Y' = Y \times_X X'$
with the projection map $v : Y' \to Y$ (an isomorphism). We also
set $\overline{Y}' = \overline{Y} \times_{\overline{X}} \overline{X}'$
with the projection map $\overline{v} : \overline{Y}' \to \overline{Y}$
It is clear that $Y' \to \overline{Y}'$ is an open immersion.
The diagram
$$
\xymatrix{
(Y', \overline{Y}') \ar[r]_{(g, \overline{g})} \ar[d]_{(v, \overline{v})} &
(X', \overline{X}') \ar[d]_{(u, \overline{u})} \\
(Y, \overline{Y}) \ar[r]^{(f, \overline{f})} & (X, \overline{X})
}
$$
shows that axiom RMS2 holds.
\medskip\noindent
Let us check RMS3 holds. Suppose given a pair of morphisms
$(f, \overline{f}), (g, \overline{g}) :
(X, \overline{X}) \to (Y, \overline{Y})$
of compactifications and a morphism
$(v, \overline{v}) : (Y, \overline{Y}) \to (Y', \overline{Y}')$
such that $v$ is an isomorphism and such that
$(v, \overline{v}) \circ (f, \overline{f}) =
(v, \overline{v}) \circ (g, \overline{g})$. Then $f = g$.
Hence if we let $\overline{X}' \subset \overline{X}$
be the equalizer of $\overline{f}$ and $\overline{g}$,
then $(u, \overline{u}) : (X, \overline{X}') \to (X, \overline{X})$
will be a morphism of the category of compactifications
such that $(f, \overline{f}) \circ (u, \overline{u}) =
(g, \overline{g}) \circ (u, \overline{u})$ as desired.
\end{proof}
\begin{lemma}
\label{lemma-invert-right-multiplicative-system}
Let $S$ be a quasi-compact and quasi-separated scheme.
The functor $(X, \overline{X}) \mapsto X$ defines an
equivalence from the category of compactifications localized
(Categories, Lemma \ref{categories-lemma-right-localization})
at the right
multiplicative system of Lemma \ref{lemma-right-multiplicative-system}
to the category of compactifyable schemes over $S$.
\end{lemma}
\begin{proof}
Denote $\mathcal{C}$ the category of compactifications and
denote $Q : \mathcal{C} \to \mathcal{C}'$ the localization
functor of Categories, Lemma
\ref{categories-lemma-properties-right-localization}.
Denote $\mathcal{D}$ the category of compactifyable schemes
over $S$. It is clear from the lemma just cited and our
choice of multiplicative system that we
obtain a functor $\mathcal{C}' \to \mathcal{D}$.
This functor is clearly essentially surjective.
If $f : X \to Y$ is a morphism of compactifyable
schemes, then we choose an open immersion $Y \to \overline{Y}$
into a scheme proper over $S$, and then we choose an embedding
$X \to \overline{X}$ into a scheme $\overline{X}$ proper over
$\overline{Y}$ (possible by Lemma \ref{lemma-compactifyable}
applied to $X \to \overline{Y}$). This gives a morphism
$(X, \overline{X}) \to (Y, \overline{Y})$ of compactifications
which produces our given morphism $X \to Y$.
Finally, suppose given a pair of morphisms in the
localized category with the same source and target: say
$$
a = ((f, \overline{f}) : (X', \overline{X}') \to (Y, \overline{Y}),
(u, \overline{u}) : (X', \overline{X}') \to (X, \overline{X}))
$$
and
$$
b = ((g, \overline{g}) : (X'', \overline{X}'') \to (Y, \overline{Y}),
(v, \overline{v}) : (X'', \overline{X}'') \to (X, \overline{X}))
$$
which produce the same morphism $X \to Y$ over $S$, in other words
$f \circ u^{-1} = g \circ v^{-1}$. By
Categories, Lemma \ref{categories-lemma-morphisms-right-localization}
we may assume that $(X', \overline{X}') = (X'', \overline{X}'')$
and $(u, \overline{u}) = (v, \overline{v})$. In this case we
can consider the equalizer $\overline{X}''' \subset \overline{X}'$
of $\overline{f}$ and $\overline{g}$. The morphism
$(w, \overline{w}) : (X', \overline{X}''') \to (X', \overline{X}')$ is in
the multiplicative subset and we see that $a = b$ in the localized
category by precomposing with $(w, \overline{w})$.
\end{proof}
```

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