Situation 69.6.1. Let $S$ be a scheme. Let $B = \mathop{\mathrm{lim}}\nolimits B_ i$ be a limit of a directed inverse system of algebraic spaces over $S$ with affine transition morphisms (Lemma 69.4.1). Let $0 \in I$ and let $f_0 : X_0 \to Y_0$ be a morphism of algebraic spaces over $B_0$. Assume $B_0$, $X_0$, $Y_0$ are quasi-compact and quasi-separated. Let $f_ i : X_ i \to Y_ i$ be the base change of $f_0$ to $B_ i$ and let $f : X \to Y$ be the base change of $f_0$ to $B$.

## 69.6 Descending properties of morphisms

This section is the analogue of Section 69.5 for properties of morphisms. We will work in the following situation.

Lemma 69.6.2. With notation and assumptions as in Situation 69.6.1. If

$f$ is étale,

$f_0$ is locally of finite presentation,

then $f_ i$ is étale for some $i \geq 0$.

**Proof.**
Choose an affine scheme $V_0$ and a surjective étale morphism $V_0 \to Y_0$. Choose an affine scheme $U_0$ and a surjective étale morphism $U_0 \to V_0 \times _{Y_0} X_0$. Diagram

The vertical arrows are surjective and étale by construction. We can base change this diagram to $B_ i$ or $B$ to get

Note that $U_ i, V_ i, U, V$ are affine schemes, the vertical morphisms are surjective étale, and the limit of the morphisms $U_ i \to V_ i$ is $U \to V$. Recall that $X_ i \to Y_ i$ is étale if and only if $U_ i \to V_ i$ is étale and similarly $X \to Y$ is étale if and only if $U \to V$ is étale (Morphisms of Spaces, Lemma 66.39.2). Since $f_0$ is locally of finite presentation, so is the morphism $U_0 \to V_0$. Hence the lemma follows from Limits, Lemma 32.8.10. $\square$

Lemma 69.6.3. With notation and assumptions as in Situation 69.6.1. If

$f$ is smooth,

$f_0$ is locally of finite presentation,

then $f_ i$ is smooth for some $i \geq 0$.

**Proof.**
Choose an affine scheme $V_0$ and a surjective étale morphism $V_0 \to Y_0$. Choose an affine scheme $U_0$ and a surjective étale morphism $U_0 \to V_0 \times _{Y_0} X_0$. Diagram

The vertical arrows are surjective and étale by construction. We can base change this diagram to $B_ i$ or $B$ to get

Note that $U_ i, V_ i, U, V$ are affine schemes, the vertical morphisms are surjective étale, and the limit of the morphisms $U_ i \to V_ i$ is $U \to V$. Recall that $X_ i \to Y_ i$ is smooth if and only if $U_ i \to V_ i$ is smooth and similarly $X \to Y$ is smooth if and only if $U \to V$ is smooth (Morphisms of Spaces, Definition 66.37.1). Since $f_0$ is locally of finite presentation, so is the morphism $U_0 \to V_0$. Hence the lemma follows from Limits, Lemma 32.8.9. $\square$

Lemma 69.6.4. With notation and assumptions as in Situation 69.6.1. If

$f$ is surjective,

$f_0$ is locally of finite presentation,

then $f_ i$ is surjective for some $i \geq 0$.

**Proof.**
Choose an affine scheme $V_0$ and a surjective étale morphism $V_0 \to Y_0$. Choose an affine scheme $U_0$ and a surjective étale morphism $U_0 \to V_0 \times _{Y_0} X_0$. Diagram

The vertical arrows are surjective and étale by construction. We can base change this diagram to $B_ i$ or $B$ to get

Note that $U_ i, V_ i, U, V$ are affine schemes, the vertical morphisms are surjective étale, the limit of the morphisms $U_ i \to V_ i$ is $U \to V$, and the morphisms $U_ i \to X_ i \times _{Y_ i} V_ i$ and $U \to X \times _ Y V$ are surjective (as base changes of $U_0 \to X_0 \times _{Y_0} V_0$). In particular, we see that $X_ i \to Y_ i$ is surjective if and only if $U_ i \to V_ i$ is surjective and similarly $X \to Y$ is surjective if and only if $U \to V$ is surjective. Since $f_0$ is locally of finite presentation, so is the morphism $U_0 \to V_0$. Hence the lemma follows from the case of schemes (Limits, Lemma 32.8.15). $\square$

Lemma 69.6.5. Notation and assumptions as in Situation 69.6.1. If

$f$ is universally injective,

$f_0$ is locally of finite type,

then $f_ i$ is universally injective for some $i \geq 0$.

**Proof.**
Recall that a morphism $X \to Y$ is universally injective if and only if the diagonal $X \to X \times _ Y X$ is surjective (Morphisms of Spaces, Definition 66.19.3 and Lemma 66.19.2). Observe that $X_0 \to X_0 \times _{Y_0} X_0$ is of locally of finite presentation (Morphisms of Spaces, Lemma 66.28.10). Hence the lemma follows from Lemma 69.6.4 by considering the morphism $X_0 \to X_0 \times _{Y_0} X_0$.
$\square$

Lemma 69.6.6. Notation and assumptions as in Situation 69.6.1. If $f$ is affine, then $f_ i$ is affine for some $i \geq 0$.

**Proof.**
Choose an affine scheme $V_0$ and a surjective étale morphism $V_0 \to Y_0$. Set $V_ i = V_0 \times _{Y_0} Y_ i$ and $V = V_0 \times _{Y_0} Y$. Since $f$ is affine we see that $V \times _ Y X = \mathop{\mathrm{lim}}\nolimits V_ i \times _{Y_ i} X_ i$ is affine. By Lemma 69.5.10 we see that $V_ i \times _{Y_ i} X_ i$ is affine for some $i \geq 0$. For this $i$ the morphism $f_ i$ is affine (Morphisms of Spaces, Lemma 66.20.3).
$\square$

Lemma 69.6.7. Notation and assumptions as in Situation 69.6.1. If

$f$ is finite,

$f_0$ is locally of finite type,

then $f_ i$ is finite for some $i \geq 0$.

**Proof.**
Choose an affine scheme $V_0$ and a surjective étale morphism $V_0 \to Y_0$. Set $V_ i = V_0 \times _{Y_0} Y_ i$ and $V = V_0 \times _{Y_0} Y$. Since $f$ is finite we see that $V \times _ Y X = \mathop{\mathrm{lim}}\nolimits V_ i \times _{Y_ i} X_ i$ is a scheme finite over $V$. By Lemma 69.5.10 we see that $V_ i \times _{Y_ i} X_ i$ is affine for some $i \geq 0$. Increasing $i$ if necessary we find that $V_ i \times _{Y_ i} X_ i \to V_ i$ is finite by Limits, Lemma 32.8.3. For this $i$ the morphism $f_ i$ is finite (Morphisms of Spaces, Lemma 66.45.3).
$\square$

Lemma 69.6.8. Notation and assumptions as in Situation 69.6.1. If

$f$ is a closed immersion,

$f_0$ is locally of finite type,

then $f_ i$ is a closed immersion for some $i \geq 0$.

**Proof.**
Choose an affine scheme $V_0$ and a surjective étale morphism $V_0 \to Y_0$. Set $V_ i = V_0 \times _{Y_0} Y_ i$ and $V = V_0 \times _{Y_0} Y$. Since $f$ is a closed immersion we see that $V \times _ Y X = \mathop{\mathrm{lim}}\nolimits V_ i \times _{Y_ i} X_ i$ is a closed subscheme of the affine scheme $V$. By Lemma 69.5.10 we see that $V_ i \times _{Y_ i} X_ i$ is affine for some $i \geq 0$. Increasing $i$ if necessary we find that $V_ i \times _{Y_ i} X_ i \to V_ i$ is a closed immersion by Limits, Lemma 32.8.5. For this $i$ the morphism $f_ i$ is a closed immersion (Morphisms of Spaces, Lemma 66.45.3).
$\square$

Lemma 69.6.9. Notation and assumptions as in Situation 69.6.1. If $f$ is separated, then $f_ i$ is separated for some $i \geq 0$.

**Proof.**
Apply Lemma 69.6.8 to the diagonal morphism $\Delta _{X_0/Y_0} : X_0 \to X_0 \times _{Y_0} X_0$. (Diagonal morphisms are locally of finite type and the fibre product $X_0 \times _{Y_0} X_0$ is quasi-compact and quasi-separated. Some details omitted.)
$\square$

Lemma 69.6.10. Notation and assumptions as in Situation 69.6.1. If

$f$ is a isomorphism,

$f_0$ is locally of finite presentation,

then $f_ i$ is a isomorphism for some $i \geq 0$.

**Proof.**
Being an isomorphism is equivalent to being étale, universally injective, and surjective, see Morphisms of Spaces, Lemma 66.51.2. Thus the lemma follows from Lemmas 69.6.2, 69.6.4, and 69.6.5.
$\square$

Lemma 69.6.11. Notation and assumptions as in Situation 69.6.1. If

$f$ is a monomorphism,

$f_0$ is locally of finite type,

then $f_ i$ is a monomorphism for some $i \geq 0$.

**Proof.**
Recall that a morphism is a monomorphism if and only if the diagonal is an isomorphism. The morphism $X_0 \to X_0 \times _{Y_0} X_0$ is locally of finite presentation by Morphisms of Spaces, Lemma 66.28.10. Since $X_0 \times _{Y_0} X_0$ is quasi-compact and quasi-separated we conclude from Lemma 69.6.10 that $\Delta _ i : X_ i \to X_ i \times _{Y_ i} X_ i$ is an isomorphism for some $i \geq 0$. For this $i$ the morphism $f_ i$ is a monomorphism.
$\square$

Lemma 69.6.12. Notation and assumptions as in Situation 69.6.1. Let $\mathcal{F}_0$ be a quasi-coherent $\mathcal{O}_{X_0}$-module and denote $\mathcal{F}_ i$ the pullback to $X_ i$ and $\mathcal{F}$ the pullback to $X$. If

$\mathcal{F}$ is flat over $Y$,

$\mathcal{F}_0$ is of finite presentation, and

$f_0$ is locally of finite presentation,

then $\mathcal{F}_ i$ is flat over $Y_ i$ for some $i \geq 0$. In particular, if $f_0$ is locally of finite presentation and $f$ is flat, then $f_ i$ is flat for some $i \geq 0$.

**Proof.**
Choose an affine scheme $V_0$ and a surjective étale morphism $V_0 \to Y_0$. Choose an affine scheme $U_0$ and a surjective étale morphism $U_0 \to V_0 \times _{Y_0} X_0$. Diagram

Note that $U_ i, V_ i, U, V$ are affine schemes, the vertical morphisms are surjective étale, and the limit of the morphisms $U_ i \to V_ i$ is $U \to V$. Recall that $\mathcal{F}_ i$ is flat over $Y_ i$ if and only if $\mathcal{F}_ i|_{U_ i}$ is flat over $V_ i$ and similarly $\mathcal{F}$ is flat over $Y$ if and only if $\mathcal{F}|_ U$ is flat over $V$ (Morphisms of Spaces, Definition 66.30.1). Since $f_0$ is locally of finite presentation, so is the morphism $U_0 \to V_0$. Hence the lemma follows from Limits, Lemma 32.10.4. $\square$

Lemma 69.6.13. Assumptions and notation as in Situation 69.6.1. If

$f$ is proper, and

$f_0$ is locally of finite type,

then there exists an $i$ such that $f_ i$ is proper.

**Proof.**
Choose an affine scheme $V_0$ and a surjective étale morphism $V_0 \to Y_0$. Set $V_ i = Y_ i \times _{Y_0} V_0$ and $V = Y \times _{Y_0} V_0$. It suffices to prove that the base change of $f_ i$ to $V_ i$ is proper, see Morphisms of Spaces, Lemma 66.40.2. Thus we may assume $Y_0$ is affine.

By Lemma 69.6.9 we see that $f_ i$ is separated for some $i \geq 0$. Replacing $0$ by $i$ we may assume that $f_0$ is separated. Observe that $f_0$ is quasi-compact. Thus $f_0$ is separated and of finite type. By Cohomology of Spaces, Lemma 68.18.1 we can choose a diagram

where $X_0' \to \mathbf{P}^ n_{Y_0}$ is an immersion, and $\pi : X_0' \to X_0$ is proper and surjective. Introduce $X' = X_0' \times _{Y_0} Y$ and $X_ i' = X_0' \times _{Y_0} Y_ i$. By Morphisms of Spaces, Lemmas 66.40.4 and 66.40.3 we see that $X' \to Y$ is proper. Hence $X' \to \mathbf{P}^ n_ Y$ is a closed immersion (Morphisms of Spaces, Lemma 66.40.6). By Morphisms of Spaces, Lemma 66.40.7 it suffices to prove that $X'_ i \to Y_ i$ is proper for some $i$. By Lemma 69.6.8 we find that $X'_ i \to \mathbf{P}^ n_{Y_ i}$ is a closed immersion for $i$ large enough. Then $X'_ i \to Y_ i$ is proper and we win. $\square$

Lemma 69.6.14. Assumptions and notation as in Situation 69.6.1. Let $d \geq 0$. If

$f$ has relative dimension $\leq d$ (Morphisms of Spaces, Definition 66.33.2), and

$f_0$ is locally of finite type,

then there exists an $i$ such that $f_ i$ has relative dimension $\leq d$.

**Proof.**
Choose an affine scheme $V_0$ and a surjective étale morphism $V_0 \to Y_0$. Choose an affine scheme $U_0$ and a surjective étale morphism $U_0 \to V_0 \times _{Y_0} X_0$. Diagram

Note that $U_ i, V_ i, U, V$ are affine schemes, the vertical morphisms are surjective étale, and the limit of the morphisms $U_ i \to V_ i$ is $U \to V$. In this situation $X_ i \to Y_ i$ has relative dimension $\leq d$ if and only if $U_ i \to V_ i$ has relative dimension $\leq d$ (as defined in Morphisms, Definition 29.29.1). To see the equivalence, use that the definition for morphisms of algebraic spaces involves Morphisms of Spaces, Definition 66.33.1 which uses étale localization. The same is true for $X \to Y$ and $U \to V$. Since $f_0$ is locally of finite type, so is the morphism $U_0 \to V_0$. Hence the lemma follows from the more general Limits, Lemma 32.18.1. $\square$

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