## 99.14 The stack of polarized proper schemes

To study the stack of polarized proper schemes it suffices to work over $\mathbf{Z}$ as we can later pullback to any scheme or algebraic space we want (see Remark 99.14.5).

Situation 99.14.1. We define a category $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}$ as follows. Objects are pairs $(X \to S, \mathcal{L})$ where

$X \to S$ is a morphism of schemes which is proper, flat, and of finite presentation, and

$\mathcal{L}$ is an invertible $\mathcal{O}_ X$-module which is relatively ample on $X/S$ (Morphisms, Definition 29.37.1).

A morphism $(X' \to S', \mathcal{L}') \to (X \to S, \mathcal{L})$ between objects is given by a triple $(f, g, \varphi )$ where $f : X' \to X$ and $g : S' \to S$ are morphisms of schemes which fit into a commutative diagram

\[ \xymatrix{ X' \ar[d] \ar[r]_ f & X \ar[d] \\ S' \ar[r]^ g & S } \]

inducing an isomorphism $X' \to S' \times _ S X$, in other words, the diagram is cartesian, and $\varphi : f^*\mathcal{L} \to \mathcal{L}'$ is an isomorphism. Composition is defined in the obvious manner (see Examples of Stacks, Sections 95.7 and 95.4). The forgetful functor

\[ p : \mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}\longrightarrow \mathit{Sch}_{fppf},\quad (X \to S, \mathcal{L}) \longmapsto S \]

is how we view $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}$ as a category over $\mathit{Sch}_{fppf}$ (see Section 99.2 for notation).

In the previous section we have done a substantial amount of work on the stack $\mathcal{S}\! \mathit{paces}'_{fp, flat, proper}$ of finitely presented, flat, proper algebraic spaces. To use this material we consider the forgetful functor

99.14.1.1
\begin{equation} \label{quot-equation-over-proper-spaces} \mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}\longrightarrow \mathcal{S}\! \mathit{paces}'_{fp, flat, proper},\quad (X \to S, \mathcal{L}) \longmapsto (X \to S) \end{equation}

This functor will be a useful tool in what follows. Observe that if $(X \to S)$ is in the essential image of (99.14.1.1), then $X$ and $S$ are schemes.

Lemma 99.14.2. The category $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}$ is fibred in groupoids over $\mathcal{S}\! \mathit{paces}'_{fp, flat, proper}$. The category $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}$ is fibred in groupoids over $\mathit{Sch}_{fppf}$.

**Proof.**
We check conditions (1) and (2) of Categories, Definition 4.35.1.

Condition (1). Let $(X \to S, \mathcal{L})$ be an object of $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}$ and let $(X' \to S') \to (X \to S)$ be a morphism of $\mathcal{S}\! \mathit{paces}'_{fp, flat, proper}$. Then we let $\mathcal{L}'$ be the pullback of $\mathcal{L}$ to $X'$. Observe that $X, S, S'$ are schemes, hence $X'$ is a scheme as well (as the fibre product of schemes). Then $\mathcal{L}'$ is ample on $X'/S'$ by Morphisms, Lemma 29.37.9. In this way we obtain a morphism $(X' \to S', \mathcal{L}') \to (X \to S, \mathcal{L})$ lying over $(X' \to S') \to (X \to S)$.

Condition (2). Consider morphisms $(f, g, \varphi ) : (X' \to S', \mathcal{L}') \to (X \to S, \mathcal{L})$ and $(a, b, \psi ) : (Y \to T, \mathcal{N}) \to (X \to S, \mathcal{L})$ of $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}$. Given a morphism $(k, h) : (Y \to T) \to (X' \to S')$ of $\mathcal{S}\! \mathit{paces}'_{fp, flat, proper}$ with $(f, g) \circ (k, h) = (a, b)$ we have to show there is a unique morphism $(k, h, \chi ) : (Y \to T, \mathcal{N}) \to (X' \to S', \mathcal{L}')$ of $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}$ such that $(f, g, \varphi ) \circ (k, h, \chi ) = (a, b, \psi )$. We can just take

\[ \chi = \psi \circ (k^*\varphi )^{-1} \]

This proves condition (2). A composition of functors defining fibred categories defines a fibred category, see Categories, Lemma 4.33.12. This we see that $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}$ is fibred in groupoids over $\mathit{Sch}_{fppf}$ (strictly speaking we should check the fibre categories are groupoids and apply Categories, Lemma 4.35.2).
$\square$

Lemma 99.14.3. The category $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}$ is a stack in groupoids over $\mathcal{S}\! \mathit{paces}'_{fp, flat, proper}$ (endowed with the inherited topology, see Stacks, Definition 8.10.2). The category $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}$ is a stack in groupoids over $\mathit{Sch}_{fppf}$.

**Proof.**
We prove $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}$ is a stack in groupoids over $\mathcal{S}\! \mathit{paces}'_{fp, flat, proper}$ by checking conditions (1), (2), and (3) of Stacks, Definition 8.5.1. We have already seen (1) in Lemma 99.14.2.

A covering of $\mathcal{S}\! \mathit{paces}'_{fp, flat, proper}$ comes about in the following manner: Let $X \to S$ be an object of $\mathcal{S}\! \mathit{paces}'_{fp, flat, proper}$. Suppose that $\{ S_ i \to S\} _{i \in I}$ is a covering of $\mathit{Sch}_{fppf}$. Set $X_ i = S_ i \times _ S X$. Then $\{ (X_ i \to S_ i) \to (X \to S)\} _{i \in I}$ is a covering of $\mathcal{S}\! \mathit{paces}'_{fp, flat, proper}$ and every covering of $\mathcal{S}\! \mathit{paces}'_{fp, flat, proper}$ is isomorphic to one of these. Set $S_{ij} = S_ i \times _ S S_ j$ and $X_{ij} = S_{ij} \times _ S X$ so that $(X_{ij} \to S_{ij}) = (X_ i \to S_ i) \times _{(X \to S)} (X_ j \to S_ j)$. Next, suppose that $\mathcal{L}, \mathcal{N}$ are ample invertible sheaves on $X/S$ so that $(X \to S, \mathcal{L})$ and $(X \to S, \mathcal{N})$ are two objects of $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}$ over the object $(X \to S)$. To check descent for morphisms, we assume we have morphisms $(\text{id}, \text{id}, \varphi _ i)$ from $(X_ i \to S_ i, \mathcal{L}|_{X_ i})$ to $(X_ i \to S_ i, \mathcal{N}|_{X_ i})$ whose base changes to morphisms from $(X_{ij} \to S_{ij}, \mathcal{L}|_{X_{ij}})$ to $(X_{ij} \to S_{ij}, \mathcal{N}|_{X_{ij}})$ agree. Then $\varphi _ i : \mathcal{L}|_{X_ i} \to \mathcal{N}|_{X_ i}$ are isomorphisms of invertible modules over $X_ i$ such that $\varphi _ i$ and $\varphi _ j$ restrict to the same isomorphisms over $X_{ij}$. By descent for quasi-coherent sheaves (Descent on Spaces, Proposition 74.4.1) we obtain a unique isomorphism $\varphi : \mathcal{L} \to \mathcal{N}$ whose restriction to $X_ i$ recovers $\varphi _ i$.

Decent for objects is proved in exactly the same manner. Namely, suppose that $\{ (X_ i \to S_ i) \to (X \to S)\} _{i \in I}$ is a covering of $\mathcal{S}\! \mathit{paces}'_{fp, flat, proper}$ as above. Suppose we have objects $(X_ i \to S_ i, \mathcal{L}_ i)$ of $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}$ lying over $(X_ i \to S_ i)$ and a descent datum

\[ (\text{id}, \text{id}, \varphi _{ij}) : (X_{ij} \to S_{ij}, \mathcal{L}_ i|_{X_{ij}}) \to (X_{ij} \to S_{ij}, \mathcal{L}_ j|_{X_{ij}}) \]

satisfying the obvious cocycle condition over $(X_{ijk} \to S_{ijk})$ for every triple of indices. Then by descent for quasi-coherent sheaves (Descent on Spaces, Proposition 74.4.1) we obtain a unique invertible $\mathcal{O}_ X$-module $\mathcal{L}$ and isomorphisms $\mathcal{L}|_{X_ i} \to \mathcal{L}_ i$ recovering the descent datum $\varphi _{ij}$. To show that $(X \to S, \mathcal{L})$ is an object of $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}$ we have to prove that $\mathcal{L}$ is ample. This follows from Descent on Spaces, Lemma 74.13.1.

Since we already have seen that $\mathcal{S}\! \mathit{paces}'_{fp, flat, proper}$ is a stack in groupoids over $\mathit{Sch}_{fppf}$ (Lemma 99.13.3) it now follows formally that $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}$ is a stack in groupoids over $\mathit{Sch}_{fppf}$. See Stacks, Lemma 8.10.6.
$\square$

Sanity check: the stack $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}$ plays the same role among algebraic spaces.

Lemma 99.14.4. Let $T$ be an algebraic space over $\mathbf{Z}$. Let $\mathcal{S}_ T$ denote the corresponding algebraic stack (Algebraic Stacks, Sections 94.7, 94.8, and 94.13). We have an equivalence of categories

\[ \left\{ \begin{matrix} (X \to T, \mathcal{L})\text{ where }X \to T\text{ is a morphism}
\\ \text{of algebraic spaces, is proper, flat, and of}
\\ \text{finite presentation and }\mathcal{L}\text{ ample on }X/T
\end{matrix} \right\} \longrightarrow \mathop{\mathrm{Mor}}\nolimits _{\textit{Cat}/\mathit{Sch}_{fppf}}(\mathcal{S}_ T, \mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}) \]

**Proof.**
Omitted. Hints: Argue exactly as in the proof of Lemma 99.13.4 and use Descent on Spaces, Proposition 74.4.1 to descent the invertible sheaf in the construction of the quasi-inverse functor. The relative ampleness property descends by Descent on Spaces, Lemma 74.13.1.
$\square$

Lemma 99.14.6. The functor (99.14.1.1) defines a $1$-morphism

\[ \mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}\to \mathcal{S}\! \mathit{paces}'_{fp, flat, proper} \]

of stacks in groupoids over $\mathit{Sch}_{fppf}$ which is algebraic in the sense of Criteria for Representability, Definition 97.8.1.

**Proof.**
By Lemmas 99.13.3 and 99.14.3 the statement makes sense. To prove it, we choose a scheme $S$ and an object $\xi = (X \to S)$ of $\mathcal{S}\! \mathit{paces}'_{fp, flat, proper}$ over $S$. We have to show that

\[ \mathcal{X} = (\mathit{Sch}/S)_{fppf} \times _{\xi , \mathcal{S}\! \mathit{paces}'_{fp, flat, proper}} \mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized} \]

is an algebraic stack over $S$. Observe that an object of $\mathcal{X}$ is given by a pair $(T/S, \mathcal{L})$ where $T$ is a scheme over $S$ and $\mathcal{L}$ is an invertible $\mathcal{O}_{X_ T}$-module which is ample on $X_ T/T$. Morphisms are defined in the obvious manner. In particular, we see immediately that we have an inclusion

\[ \mathcal{X} \subset \mathcal{P}\! \mathit{ic}_{X/S} \]

of categories over $(\mathit{Sch}/S)_{fppf}$, inducing equality on morphism sets. Since $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{ic}_{X/S}$ is an algebraic stack by Proposition 99.10.2 it suffices to show that the inclusion above is representable by open immersions. This is exactly the content of Descent on Spaces, Lemma 74.13.2.
$\square$

Lemma 99.14.7. The diagonal

\[ \Delta : \mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}\longrightarrow \mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}\times \mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized} \]

is representable by algebraic spaces.

**Proof.**
This is a formal consequence of Lemmas 99.14.6 and 99.13.2. See Criteria for Representability, Lemma 97.8.4.
$\square$

Lemma 99.14.8. The stack in groupoids $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}$ is limit preserving (Artin's Axioms, Definition 98.11.1).

**Proof.**
Let $I$ be a directed set and let $(A_ i, \varphi _{ii'})$ be a system of rings over $I$. Set $S = \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(A)$ and $S_ i = \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(A_ i)$. We have to show that on fibre categories we have

\[ \mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}_ S = \mathop{\mathrm{colim}}\nolimits \mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}_{S_ i} \]

We know that the category of schemes of finite presentation over $S$ is the colimit of the category of schemes of finite presentation over $S_ i$, see Limits, Lemma 32.10.1. Moreover, given $X_ i \to S_ i$ of finite presentation, with limit $X \to S$, then the category of invertible $\mathcal{O}_ X$-modules $\mathcal{L}$ is the colimit of the categories of invertible $\mathcal{O}_{X_ i}$-modules $\mathcal{L}_ i$, see Limits, Lemma 32.10.2 and 32.10.3. If $X \to S$ is proper and flat, then for sufficiently large $i$ the morphism $X_ i \to S_ i$ is proper and flat too, see Limits, Lemmas 32.13.1 and 32.8.7. Finally, if $\mathcal{L}$ is ample on $X$ then $\mathcal{L}_ i$ is ample on $X_ i$ for $i$ sufficiently large, see Limits, Lemma 32.4.15. Putting everything together finishes the proof.
$\square$

Lemma 99.14.9. In Situation 99.5.1. Let

\[ \xymatrix{ T \ar[r] \ar[d] & T' \ar[d] \\ S \ar[r] & S' } \]

be a pushout in the category of schemes where $T \to T'$ is a thickening and $T \to S$ is affine, see More on Morphisms, Lemma 37.14.3. Then the functor on fibre categories

\[ \mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}_{S'} \longrightarrow \mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}_ S \times _{\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}_ T} \mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}_{T'} \]

is an equivalence.

**Proof.**
By More on Morphisms, Lemma 37.14.6 there is an equivalence

\[ \textit{flat-lfp}_{S'} \longrightarrow \textit{flat-lfp}_ S \times _{\textit{flat-lfp}_ T} \textit{flat-lfp}_{T'} \]

where $\textit{flat-lfp}_ S$ signifies the category of schemes flat and locally of finite presentation over $S$. Let $X'/S'$ on the left hand side correspond to the triple $(X/S, Y'/T', \varphi )$ on the right hand side. Set $Y = T \times _{T'} Y'$ which is isomorphic with $T \times _ S X$ via $\varphi $. Then More on Morphisms, Lemma 37.14.5 shows that we have an equivalence

\[ \textit{QCoh-flat}_{X'/S'} \longrightarrow \textit{QCoh-flat}_{X/S} \times _{\textit{QCoh-flat}_{Y/T}} \textit{QCoh-flat}_{Y'/T'} \]

where $\textit{QCoh-flat}_{X/S}$ signifies the category of quasi-coherent $\mathcal{O}_ X$-modules flat over $S$. Since $X \to S$, $Y \to T$, $X' \to S'$, $Y' \to T'$ are flat, this will in particular apply to invertible modules to give an equivalence of categories

\[ \textit{Pic}(X') \longrightarrow \textit{Pic}(X) \times _{\textit{Pic}(Y)} \textit{Pic}(Y') \]

where $\textit{Pic}(X)$ signifies the category of invertible $\mathcal{O}_ X$-modules. There is a small point here: one has to show that if an object $\mathcal{F}'$ of $\textit{QCoh-flat}_{X'/S'}$ pulls back to invertible modules on $X$ and $Y'$, then $\mathcal{F}'$ is an invertible $\mathcal{O}_{X'}$-module. It follows from the cited lemma that $\mathcal{F}'$ is an $\mathcal{O}_{X'}$-module of finite presentation. By More on Morphisms, Lemma 37.16.7 it suffices to check the restriction of $\mathcal{F}'$ to fibres of $X' \to S'$ is invertible. But the fibres of $X' \to S'$ are the same as the fibres of $X \to S$ and hence these restrictions are invertible.

Having said the above we obtain an equivalence of categories if we drop the assumption (for the category of objects over $S$) that $X \to S$ be proper and the assumption that $\mathcal{L}$ be ample. Now it is clear that if $X' \to S'$ is proper, then $X \to S$ and $Y' \to T'$ are proper (Morphisms, Lemma 29.41.5). Conversely, if $X \to S$ and $Y' \to T'$ are proper, then $X' \to S'$ is proper by More on Morphisms, Lemma 37.3.3. Similarly, if $\mathcal{L}'$ is ample on $X'/S'$, then $\mathcal{L}'|_ X$ is ample on $X/S$ and $\mathcal{L}'|_{Y'}$ is ample on $Y'/T'$ (Morphisms, Lemma 29.37.9). Finally, if $\mathcal{L}'|_ X$ is ample on $X/S$ and $\mathcal{L}'|_{Y'}$ is ample on $Y'/T'$, then $\mathcal{L}'$ is ample on $X'/S'$ by More on Morphisms, Lemma 37.3.2.
$\square$

Lemma 99.14.10. Let $k$ be a field and let $x = (X \to \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(k), \mathcal{L})$ be an object of $\mathcal{X} = \mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}$ over $\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(k)$.

If $k$ is of finite type over $\mathbf{Z}$, then the vector spaces $T\mathcal{F}_{\mathcal{X}, k, x}$ and $\text{Inf}(\mathcal{F}_{\mathcal{X}, k, x})$ (see Artin's Axioms, Section 98.8) are finite dimensional, and

in general the vector spaces $T_ x(k)$ and $\text{Inf}_ x(k)$ (see Artin's Axioms, Section 98.21) are finite dimensional.

**Proof.**
The discussion in Artin's Axioms, Section 98.8 only applies to fields of finite type over the base scheme $\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(\mathbf{Z})$. Our stack satisfies (RS*) by Lemma 99.14.9 and we may apply Artin's Axioms, Lemma 98.21.2 to get the vector spaces $T_ x(k)$ and $\text{Inf}_ x(k)$ mentioned in (2). Moreover, in the finite type case these spaces agree with the ones mentioned in part (1) by Artin's Axioms, Remark 98.21.7. With this out of the way we can start the proof.

One proof is to use an argument as in the proof of Lemma 99.13.8; this would require us to develop a deformation theory for pairs consisting of a scheme and a quasi-coherent module. Another proof would be the use the result from Lemma 99.13.8, the algebraicity of $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}\to \mathcal{S}\! \mathit{paces}'_{fp, flat, proper}$, and a computation of the deformation space of an invertible module. However, what we will do instead is to translate the question into a deformation question on graded $k$-algebras and deduce the result that way.

Let $\mathcal{C}_ k$ be the category of Artinian local $k$-algebras $A$ with residue field $k$. We get a predeformation category $p : \mathcal{F} \to \mathcal{C}_ k$ from our object $x$ of $\mathcal{X}$ over $k$, see Artin's Axioms, Section 98.3. Thus $\mathcal{F}(A)$ is the category of triples $(X_ A, \mathcal{L}_ A, \alpha )$, where $(X_ A, \mathcal{L}_ A)$ is an object of $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}$ over $A$ and $\alpha $ is an isomorphism $(X_ A, \mathcal{L}_ A) \times _{\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(A)} \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(k) \cong (X, \mathcal{L})$. On the other hand, let $q : \mathcal{G} \to \mathcal{C}_ k$ be the category cofibred in groupoids defined in Deformation Problems, Example 93.7.1. Choose $d_0 \gg 0$ (we'll see below how large). Let $P$ be the graded $k$-algebra

\[ P = k \oplus \bigoplus \nolimits _{d \geq d_0} H^0(X, \mathcal{L}^{\otimes d}) \]

Then $y = (k, P)$ is an object of $\mathcal{G}(k)$. Let $\mathcal{G}_ y$ be the predeformation category of Formal Deformation Theory, Remark 90.6.4. Given $(X_ A, \mathcal{F}_ A, \alpha )$ as above we set

\[ Q = A \oplus \bigoplus \nolimits _{d \geq d_0} H^0(X_ A, \mathcal{L}_ A^{\otimes d}) \]

The isomorphism $\alpha $ induces a map $\beta : Q \to P$. By deformation theory of projective schemes (More on Morphisms, Lemma 37.10.6) we obtain a $1$-morphism

\[ \mathcal{F} \longrightarrow \mathcal{G}_ y,\quad (X_ A, \mathcal{F}_ A, \alpha ) \longmapsto (Q, \beta : Q \to P) \]

of categories cofibred in groupoids over $\mathcal{C}_ k$. In fact, this functor is an equivalence with quasi-inverse given by $Q \mapsto \underline{\text{Proj}}_ A(Q)$. Namely, the scheme $X_ A = \underline{\text{Proj}}_ A(Q)$ is flat over $A$ by Divisors, Lemma 31.30.6. Set $\mathcal{L}_ A = \mathcal{O}_{X_ A}(1)$; this is flat over $A$ by the same lemma. We get an isomorphism $(X_ A, \mathcal{L}_ A) \times _{\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(A)} \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(k) = (X, \mathcal{L})$ from $\beta $. Then we can deduce all the desired properties of the pair $(X_ A, \mathcal{L}_ A)$ from the corresponding properties of $(X, \mathcal{L})$ using the techniques in More on Morphisms, Sections 37.3 and 37.10. Some details omitted.

In conclusion, we see that $T\mathcal{F} = T\mathcal{G}_ y = T_ y\mathcal{G}$ and $\text{Inf}(\mathcal{F}) = \text{Inf}_ y(\mathcal{G})$. These vector spaces are finite dimensional by Deformation Problems, Lemma 93.7.3 and the proof is complete.
$\square$

slogan
Lemma 99.14.11 (Strong formal effectiveness for polarized schemes). Let $(R_ n)$ be an inverse system of rings with surjective transition maps whose kernels are locally nilpotent. Set $R = \mathop{\mathrm{lim}}\nolimits R_ n$. Set $S_ n = \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(R_ n)$ and $S = \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(R)$. Consider a commutative diagram

\[ \xymatrix{ X_1 \ar[r]_{i_1} \ar[d] & X_2 \ar[r]_{i_2} \ar[d] & X_3 \ar[r] \ar[d] & \ldots \\ S_1 \ar[r] & S_2 \ar[r] & S_3 \ar[r] & \ldots } \]

of schemes with cartesian squares. Suppose given $(\mathcal{L}_ n, \varphi _ n)$ where each $\mathcal{L}_ n$ is an invertible sheaf on $X_ n$ and $\varphi _ n : i_ n^*\mathcal{L}_{n + 1} \to \mathcal{L}_ n$ is an isomorphism. If

$X_ n \to S_ n$ is proper, flat, of finite presentation, and

$\mathcal{L}_1$ is ample on $X_1$

then there exists a morphism of schemes $X \to S$ proper, flat, and of finite presentation and an ample invertible $\mathcal{O}_ X$-module $\mathcal{L}$ and isomorphisms $X_ n \cong X \times _ S S_ n$ and $\mathcal{L}_ n \cong \mathcal{L}|_{X_ n}$ compatible with the morphisms $i_ n$ and $\varphi _ n$.

**Proof.**
Choose $d_0$ for $X_1 \to S_1$ and $\mathcal{L}_1$ as in More on Morphisms, Lemma 37.10.6. For any $n \geq 1$ set

\[ A_ n = R_ n \oplus \bigoplus \nolimits _{d \geq d_0} H^0(X_ n, \mathcal{L}_ n^{\otimes d}) \]

By the lemma each $A_ n$ is a finitely presented graded $R_ n$-algebra whose homogeneous parts $(A_ n)_ d$ are finite projective $R_ n$-modules such that $X_ n = \text{Proj}(A_ n)$ and $\mathcal{L}_ n = \mathcal{O}_{\text{Proj}(A_ n)}(1)$. The lemma also guarantees that the maps

\[ A_1 \leftarrow A_2 \leftarrow A_3 \leftarrow \ldots \]

induce isomorphisms $A_ n = A_ m \otimes _{R_ m} R_ n$ for $n \leq m$. We set

\[ B = \bigoplus \nolimits _{d \geq 0} B_ d \quad \text{with}\quad B_ d = \mathop{\mathrm{lim}}\nolimits _ n (A_ n)_ d \]

By More on Algebra, Lemma 15.13.4 we see that $B_ d$ is a finite projective $R$-module and that $B \otimes _ R R_ n = A_ n$. Thus the scheme

\[ X = \text{Proj}(B) \quad \text{and}\quad \mathcal{L} = \mathcal{O}_ X(1) \]

is flat over $S$ and $\mathcal{L}$ is a quasi-coherent $\mathcal{O}_ X$-module flat over $S$, see Divisors, Lemma 31.30.6. Because formation of Proj commutes with base change (Constructions, Lemma 27.11.6) we obtain canonical isomorphisms

\[ X \times _ S S_ n = X_ n \quad \text{and}\quad \mathcal{L}|_{X_ n} \cong \mathcal{L}_ n \]

compatible with the transition maps of the system. Thus we may think of $X_1 \subset X$ as a closed subscheme. Below we will show that $B$ is of finite presentation over $R$. By Divisors, Lemmas 31.30.4 and 31.30.7 this implies that $X \to S$ is of finite presentation and proper and that $\mathcal{L} = \mathcal{O}_ X(1)$ is of finite presentation as an $\mathcal{O}_ X$-module. Since the restriction of $\mathcal{L}$ to the base change $X_1 \to S_1$ is invertible, we see from More on Morphisms, Lemma 37.16.8 that $\mathcal{L}$ is invertible on an open neighbourhood of $X_1$ in $X$. Since $X \to S$ is closed and since $\mathop{\mathrm{Ker}}(R \to R_1)$ is contained in the Jacobson radical (More on Algebra, Lemma 15.11.3) we see that any open neighbourhood of $X_1$ in $X$ is equal to $X$. Thus $\mathcal{L}$ is invertible. Finally, the set of points in $S$ where $\mathcal{L}$ is ample on the fibre is open in $S$ (More on Morphisms, Lemma 37.50.3) and contains $S_1$ hence equals $S$. Thus $X \to S$ and $\mathcal{L}$ have all the properties required of them in the statement of the lemma.

We prove the claim above. Choose a presentation $A_1 = R_1[X_1, \ldots , X_ s]/(F_1, \ldots , F_ t)$ where $X_ i$ are variables having degrees $d_ i$ and $F_ j$ are homogeneous polynomials in $X_ i$ of degree $e_ j$. Then we can choose a map

\[ \Psi : R[X_1, \ldots , X_ s] \longrightarrow B \]

lifting the map $R_1[X_1, \ldots , X_ s] \to A_1$. Since each $B_ d$ is finite projective over $R$ we conclude from Nakayama's lemma (Algebra, Lemma 10.20.1 using again that $\mathop{\mathrm{Ker}}(R \to R_1)$ is contained in the Jacobson radical of $R$) that $\Psi $ is surjective. Since $- \otimes _ R R_1$ is right exact we can find $G_1, \ldots , G_ t \in \mathop{\mathrm{Ker}}(\Psi )$ mapping to $F_1, \ldots , F_ t$ in $R_1[X_1, \ldots , X_ s]$. Observe that $\mathop{\mathrm{Ker}}(\Psi )_ d$ is a finite projective $R$-module for all $d \geq 0$ as the kernel of the surjection $R[X_1, \ldots , X_ s]_ d \to B_ d$ of finite projective $R$-modules. We conclude from Nakayama's lemma once more that $\mathop{\mathrm{Ker}}(\Psi )$ is generated by $G_1, \ldots , G_ t$.
$\square$

Lemma 99.14.12. Consider the stack $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}$ over the base scheme $\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(\mathbf{Z})$. Then every formal object is effective.

**Proof.**
For definitions of the notions in the lemma, please see Artin's Axioms, Section 98.9. From the definitions we see the lemma follows immediately from the more general Lemma 99.14.11.
$\square$

Lemma 99.14.13. The stack in groupoids $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}$ satisfies openness of versality over $\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(\mathbf{Z})$. Similarly, after base change (Remark 99.14.5) openness of versality holds over any Noetherian base scheme $S$.

**Proof.**
This follows from Artin's Axioms, Lemma 98.20.3 and Lemmas 99.14.7, 99.14.9, 99.14.8, and 99.14.11. For the “usual” proof of this fact, please see the discussion in the remark following this proof.
$\square$

Theorem 99.14.15 (Algebraicity of the stack of polarized schemes). The stack $\mathcal{P}\! \mathit{olarized}$ (Situation 99.14.1) is algebraic. In fact, for any algebraic space $B$ the stack $B\textit{-Polarized}$ (Remark 99.14.5) is algebraic.

**Proof.**
The absolute case follows from Artin's Axioms, Lemma 98.17.1 and Lemmas 99.14.7, 99.14.9, 99.14.8, 99.14.12, and 99.14.13. The case over $B$ follows from this, the description of $B\textit{-Polarized}$ as a $2$-fibre product in Remark 99.14.5, and the fact that algebraic stacks have $2$-fibre products, see Algebraic Stacks, Lemma 94.14.3.
$\square$

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